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INVENTIONS AND PATENTS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY FROM DOCUMENTATION AND PROTECTION TO LAUNCHING AND PRODUCTION
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-05-30)
April 2016 is one of the most glorious and historical dates for the KSA future when His Royal Highness Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud presented the Saudi Vision 2030, a fulfillment of the directives of King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud to set strategic goals that express the Saudis ambition and reflect their capabilities and talents. This young and ambitious vision began with HRH Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s message: “Together, we will continue building a better country, fulfilling our dream of prosperity and unlocking the talent, potential, and dedication of our young men and women.” Therefore, many achievements have been made based on the Saudi Vision 2030. Several transformational enablers have crystallized during the past five years, contributing to tangible results in the government work system, the economy, and society and building the success foundations for the future. However, KSA has faced many challenges and got many experiences that have strengthened people’s confidence in achieving their goals. That’s why KSA’s 2030 vision has worked to increase government effectiveness and responsiveness by investing in government digital transformation. KSA’s vision also has created opportunities for growth and investment, several new economic sectors, opened our doors to the world, raised the standard of government, and grand the citizen’s life high quality. In fact, all these achievements were made by the hands of the sons and daughters of our great country with the supervision and support of our great leaders. Moreover, based on the latest Saudi Census, by the General Authority for Statistics, the percentage of youth aged from 15 to 35 years represents two-thirds of the society in KSA, equivalent to 67% of the total population. Therefore, giving all the support needed to these young Saudi minds will lead our country to varied areas of new inventions in light of the 2030 vision. Furthermore, GII stated that KSA ranks 66th among the 131 economists featured in 2020. In 2022, KSA made great strides until it reached 51st globally for GII classification. This leads us to acknowledge that vision 2030 has significantly impacted this innovative movement at all focused levels and aspects. However, despite all tremendous touchable support, the Saudi inventor is still facing some obstacles and needs cooperative measured assistance, whether on the financial, moral, educational, legislative, procedural, technical, marketing, or other logistical requests, which, if planned to be provided smoothly, correctly, and at the right time, we will discover some other undiscovered great minds that will make the name of KSA shinier and among the top 10 countries that export inventions to the world. In addition to that, one of the most superior outcomes of the Saudi 2030 Vision is the establishment of SAIP in 2017 and the NIPST launch in 2022-2023. After that, significant IP fields revived and are strong recently, such as Trademarks and Copyrights, but the focus on patents, inventions, and inventors is still below average. Although KACST and Mawhiba are doing great in their powers and scopes, much work must be done to cover more missing parts in other related fields. In terms of society, KSA has great youth energies and intelligent minds. Many Saudis have studied and learned in the best local or even global universities; many young Saudis are fluent in more than one international language. Also, many of them are open to the other world scientifically and socially, and most are using technologies daily. All these ingredients and more give any interested party the green light to focus on such a project for the KSA’s future in creating a stable environment for inventors and patents holders and supporting it economically, socially, and politically to make KSA among the top countries in the field of inventions, advanced technologies, AI, and IP as well. Frankly, patents as legal protection certificates in KSA enjoy enough support from SAIP, but in terms of final products that can be compelling, it needs many efforts to reach the approbate satisfaction. On the other hand, as a society, we lack continuous awareness of the importance of inventions and their patent protection. We must seek, with ambition, to see the outputs of these Saudi patents on the ground and benefit from them locally and globally. Even in terms of education, academic, and research publications, much work must be done to enrich Saudi libraries with the latest specialized valuable references. Finally, KSA was and still cares about its people, citizens, and residents in all aspects of life, according to Shari'ah. Vision 2030 seeks to make the world see us from different perspectives, seeking to visit us, invest with us, and perhaps live in our country. As Saudis, this inspiring vision gave us a different perspective to see things in a way that has a lot of passion, challenge, steadfastness, and achieving goals, no matter how difficult they are. Therefore, this dissertation contributed primarily to 1) Describing and analyzing the current situation of many aspects related to the inventions, the inventors in KSA, and the mechanism of protecting the inventions through patents as a part of the IP system. 2) IP protection in Islam as an educational knowledge, and the KSA legal environment before and after the Saudi Vision 2030. 3) Highlighting Islamic inventions and Muslim inventors in the forgotten golden ages. 4) A complete updated overview and achievements of the Saudi Vision 2030. 5) An inclusive detailed legal overview of patents in KSA. As a result, the study concluded, after a comprehensive theoretical and legal description based on the available collected data and other information, to adopt two approaches regarding the development methods for inventions and patents in KSA, one of which deals with the actual situation in the present from three main proposed aspects which are the ecosystem aspects, the legal and procedural aspects, and the logistical aspects in all its interrelated elements. The other one is the future which looks forward to race beside time to reach the impossible through a general proposed map to describe a comprehensive development method that will fulfill what Saudis have already done in making dreams catchable.
Color Stability of Milled Versus Printed High-Density Polymers Provisional Restorations
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023)
Statement of the problem:Provisional dental restorations play a vital role in dental treatments, but their color stability can be a concern when used for extended periods. Different materials and staining conditions can affect their color performance, necessitating a comprehensive comparative study. Purpose of the study:This research aimed to compare the color stability of four provisional dental materials, when exposed to different staining solutions. Materials and methods:Two 3D printed (M1-Temporary CB Resin and M3-DENTCA), CAD/CAM milled (M2-TELIO CAD) and a traditional (M0-Protemp TM Plus Temporization Material) provisional materials were selected. The study assessed how these materials interacted with staining solutions (S0-distilled water, S2-tea, and S3-coffee) over 30 days. Each material and staining solution were prepared following the manufacturers instruction. The study involved a sample size calculation using nQuery Advance based on data from a pilot study. This led to a minimum sample size of 360 (30 per group) to achieve a maximum type II error of 20%. Color measurements were conducted for each sample after being submersed in the staining solutions using VITA Easyshade V at various time intervals (T0-baseline, T1- 3day, T2-14 days, and T3-30 days). Color differences (∆E) were calculated in the CIELAB color space, with an ∆E ≥ 3.7 indicating a clinically perceptible color difference. Results:A three-way repeated measures ANOVA investigated delta E variations across time, materials, and staining conditions, uncovering significant interactions among material and staining, time and staining, as well as time and material factors. Based on the statistical analysis M3-DENTCA and M1-Temporary CB Resin showed the highest color change in all staining solutions, while M2-PMMA displayed the most stable color properties. S0-Distilled water induced the least color change. M2- TELIO CAD consistently maintained stable color properties over time and staining conditions. Conclusion:The study highlights the importance of material selection for provisional restorations and the impact of staining solutions on color stability. M2-TELIO CAD demonstrated the most favorable color performance, while 3D-printed materials exhibited higher color changes.
IoT-Based Air Pollution Meter
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-02-24)
The quality of our lives as well as our day-to-day activities are impacted by pollution in the air. Both the planet's environment and the quality of life there are at risk as a result of this danger. Because of the rise in the number of industrial operations that have taken place over the course of the last several years, there is an obvious and immediate need to check the quality of the air. It is necessary for people to be aware of the degree to which their actions impact the quality of the air. It is predicted that monitoring air quality will become increasingly essential at residence, in the office, and at recreational events, in particular with relation to improving wellbeing and protecting social interaction. The project presents a practical approach to the implementation of smart air pollution monitoring by making use of an Internet of Things (IoT) solution. This solution is built upon low cost air quality sensors and the Thingspeak platform. This project proposes the implementation of a monitoring system for air pollution. The ESP32-based microcontroller was utilised throughout the development of the system. The system for monitoring air pollution was developed to perform monitoring and analysis of the air quality in real time. Additionally, it was intended to log data to a remote IoT platform called Thingspeak, which would keep the data updated through the internet. On the Internet of Things (IoT) platform, graphical representation was used to conduct analysis after air quality measurements were made based on the metrics of parts per million (PPM). The device collects data on the environment's temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, and smoke levels. The developed system yielded reliable results when measuring the quality of the surrounding air. The outcome was shown on the display interface of the user hardware and was available for inspection through the Thingspeak platform.
Enhancement of User Awareness of Virtual Content in Augmented Reality
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-03-02)
Augmented reality (AR) technology combines the virtual and real world by superimposing virtual content onto the real-world environment. A key element that allows the user to view the virtual content combined with the real world is the AR display. While there is a wide variety of AR displays such as hand-held displays, projection-based displays, and head-mounted displays, the AR display field of view is limited compared to the typical human vision field of view. Consequently, the AR user can only perceive and interact with the virtual content through a limited view window. To address this problem, this research project has developed and evaluated the use of different AR notification alerts to enhance the AR user awareness of the virtual content out of their AR display's field of view. The alerts include on-screen AR notifications with both passive and active user interfaces, and 3D register notifications with both passive and active user interfaces. In a user study (n=24), the use of AR on-screen notifications with passive UI has been shown to alert and guide the AR user to virtual content out of their field view faster than the other three configurations. In addition, to validate the use of notifications to enhance the user's limited field of view, a study was conducted (n=46) to evaluate the use of notifications in a collaborative work environment with a limited field of view. The study compared the performance of participants in a collaborative work environment with and without the use of notifications. The study demonstrated that the participants that performed the collaborative tasks with the used notifications completed their task faster and made fewer mistakes than the control group that performed their collaborative task without the use of notifications.
ATTITUDES, CHALLENGES AND FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEACHERS TEACHING WRITING IN PHYSICAL CLASSROOM AFTER THE PANDEMIC
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-01-20)
Writing is one of the four language components that EFL students should master, and it is particularly important for young students as they are required to write assignments and tasks. Also, the influence of teachers’ attitudes and factors that affected teachers' teaching writing as well as the challenges they faced can significantly influence students’ learning experiences. However, not much research has looked into teachers’ attitudes, factors and challenges teachers faced while teaching writing during and after the pandemic. Thus, the study aimed to explore and highlight attitudes, challenges, and factors that affected EFL female teachers teaching writing during online teaching and after the pandemic. This study adopts a quantitative approach and 76 EFL secondary school teachers from rural areas in Saudi Arabia were recruited for this study. An online questionnaire was the instrument in this study. The questionnaire is adapted from Ahmad (2016) focusing on teachers’ attitudes, factors and challenges toward teaching writing in both online and physical classrooms. The data were analysed thematically and using SPSS. The finding revealed that female teachers have negative attitudes toward teaching writing during online teaching. Teaching approach, time management and expectations are some of the factors that affected EFL teachers' teaching writing during the pandemic. Moreover, classroom assessment, home environment, and the role of the learners are other factors that affected teachers teaching writing in physical classrooms. Teachers in rural areas of Saudi Arabia faced serious challenges during teaching writing in both phases. Internet connections and lack of technological knowledge were the main challenges faced by EFL teachers teaching during the pandemic. Besides, the absence of family support and first language interference were found to be challenging in teaching writing in physical classrooms. Furthermore, the result of this study is expected to aid EFL teachers’ professional development in rural areas. This study hopes to provide new sights into teachers’ attitudes and challenges as well as the factors that affected teachers' teaching writing.