Communities in DSpace
Select a community to browse its collections.
Investigating the Comprehensive Legacy of Ibn Sanad: Unraveling the Dimensions of Arab Historiography
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-11-30)
This thesis examines the book “Mattali' al-sa’ud fi tayyib akbar al-vali Dawud” written in 19th century by an Arab historian Uthman Ibn Sanad as means to explores the historical significance of the book and the historiography of the region. In 1816 Ibn Sanad left Basra to travel to Baghdad, and in the same year, Dawud Pasha overthrew Saeed Pasha to take his place as Baghdad's governor to the Ottoman Empire. Dawud Pasha wanted to entrust Ibn Sanad with his legacy, partly because he was convinced that, as an intellectual himself, his work as a politician would only have become known by a historian. Ibn Sanad, however, used Dawud Pasha to write about the region's leaving Dawud Pasha with a fifth of the documentation period with only ten years. Although Ibn Sanad chose the year 1774 as the starting date of his book reflecting on the year Dawud was born, there was no mention of Dawud within these years only within the ten years of his rule that the author witnessed from 1816 until 1826. Instead, the book starts with the people of Basra suffering from the hegemonic power of Persians. Within these 52 years, Ibn Sanad wrote primarily about the political situation in the region with the people as his main concern, not about a single ruler. Questions that are the main concern of this thesis are: Why does thinking of Ibn Sanad as a historian tell us about his work and the world of scholarship in which he lived? What do his methodologies and styles of narration tell us? Why is it significant that these are long-standing features of history writing? More importantly, why is it significant for his time? This book analysis offers insights into Ibn Sanad's use of a historical narrative to discuss events, motives, style, and themes: scholarly significance and its enduring legacy as an Arab historian in the 19-18th century. This thesis attempts to develop a more holistic picture of Ibn Sanad's impact on Arab history and its progression over time by thoroughly evaluating his multifaceted contributions, Ibn Sanad's literary attempt reflects a purposeful intention to create a biography of an individual that transcends mere individualism and serves as a powerful lens through which to explore the greater historical context of a specific era and geographical region. Rather than perceiving this as a coincidental occurrence within his work, it is critical to understand Ibn Sanad's narrative method as intentional. He brilliantly conveys a moment of societal upheaval through his careful representation of Dawud Pasha’s life and times, using the individual's experiences as a vivid and compelling focal point for grasping the subtleties of the historical age. In essence, Ibn Sanad's work is a testament to biography's potential as a medium for portraying the varied dynamics of a certain time and place. By going extensively into Dawud’s life, he reveals not only the individual's personal experiences and aspirations, but also the larger socio-political and cultural context. This biographical method, far from being coincidental, highlights Ibn Sanad's conscious decision to use Dawud Pasha's life story as a vehicle for addressing the greater historical context.
An Investigation of The Effect of Rheo-Printing Technology on Big Area Additive Manufacturing
(Saudi Digital Library, 2024-11-27)
A novel processing innovation named Rheo-printing technology was introduced that could impact the field of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM). The Rheo-printing technology applies a controlled circumferential and axial shear rate to the polymer melt before depositing the polymer through the printing nozzle. The rheological polymer properties modify due to the applied shear rate, and the ultimate goal is to enhance the product's properties. The application of the circumferential shear rate on the polymer melt is accomplished through a rotational printing nozzle. Adjusting the rotational speed of the printing nozzle controls the shear rate applied to the polymer melt, providing control over the rheology of the polymer melt. This research employs an extrusion-based AM machine that uses polymer pellets as a feedstock to investigate the impact of Rheo-printing technology on BAAM. The effect of Rheo-printing technology was investigated theoretically and numerically to examine the shear rate impact on the material's viscosity. Different shear-thinning polymers were included in the investigation; the viscosity influence of each polymer has been studied through a range of rotational speeds, and statistical analysis has been applied to the obtained results for a comprehensive understanding. The investigation compared the influence of Rheo-printing technology on two different nozzle sizes. For small additive manufacturing or desktop 3D printers, a 0.6 mm nozzle diameter was utilized, while a 2 mm nozzle diameter was employed for BAAM. Overall results showed that the effect of Rheo-printing technology appeared more significant with a bigger nozzle diameter. Also, there is a favorable correlation between nozzle rotation and viscosity for all polymers, regardless of nozzle diameter. Specifically, this correlation manifests as a decrease in viscosity as the nozzle is rotated, with the magnitude of this reduction becoming more pronounced at higher rotational speeds and near in the outermost region of the extruded polymer road. Two different numerical simulations were included to study the impact of the temperature on the printing process. The first numerical simulation was to study the effect of printing speed on the temperature evolution of each layer during the printing process. Results showed that the temperature fluctuation as each layer's heating and cooling during the printing process decreased with increasing the printing speed. The second numerical simulation was to study the platform temperature's impact on each layer's temperature evolution during printing. The effect of increasing the platform temperature was shown clearly on the cooling interval of each layer. Increasing platform temperature reduces the heat losses in the printed layer during the cooling interval. An experimental investigation also employed conventional printing and Rheo-printing technology to investigate the temperature evolution during printing and compare the obtained results. This investigation was performed by printing two samples using conventional and Rheo-printing technology and monitoring the temperature evolution during printing. The anisotropy and porosity of BAAM products were investigated, and the enhancement of Rheo-printing technology on product properties was validated numerically and experimentally. Three groups of different layer-building times were designed, and twenty-four samples were printed using conventional and Rheo-printing technology, investigating the impact of Rheo-printing technology on interlayer adhesion strength. Also, three configurations were designed, and eighteen samples were printed using conventional and Rheo-printing technology, investigating the effect of Rheo-printing technology on void formation. The enhancement of the Rheo-printing technology on mechanical properties of BAAM samples was validated where the anisotropy and porosity percentage were reduced.
Exploring the role of WNK-SPAK/OSR1 kinases in cancer
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-12-05)
Background: With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases are crucial in regulating ion homeostasis and blood pressure. Dysregulation of WNKs contributes to cancer progression via phosphorylation of STE20/SPS1 related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and Oxidative stress response kinase-1 (OSR1). This study aimed to explore OSR1 expression in various cell lines, assess cytotoxicity of WNK1 OSR1/SPAK-Na-K-2Cl cotransporters (NKCCs) inhibitors on normal and cancer cell lines and determine interactions between OSR1 and myelin basic protein (MBP). Methods and Materials: Throughout these experiments, MDA-MB231, MDA-MB468, MCF-7 and HEK293 cell lines were used. Western blotting assessed the activity of OSR1. MTT assay evaluated cytotoxicity of Closantel, Rafoxanide, WNK463, and Bumetanide on HEK293 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Immunoprecipitation investigated OSR1-MBP interactions. Statistical analysis was used. Results: MDA-MB-231 exhibited pOSR1 overexpression at Ser373 and Thr185, suggesting a role in cancer progression. Closantel, Rafoxanide, and WNK463 resulted in cytotoxicity of HEK293 cells (IC50=39.5352μM, 38.966μM and 32.7368μM, respectively), and Closantel and Rafoxanide caused cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50=38.739μM and 40.32μM, respectively). Bumetanide exhibited variable responses. Immunoprecipitation didn’t reveal a direct OSR1 MBP relationship. Conclusion: OSR1 overexpression may drive cancer progression, as shown in MDA-MB-231 at Ser373/Thre185 phosphosites. Closantel, Rafoxanide, and WNK463 show promise as potential anticancer agents. Further studies are needed to reveal their mechanisms and further explore OSR1's role in cancer progression.
Effective Cyber Security Awareness Framework to Mitigate Human Factors in Social Engineering Attacks Post Covid 19
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-12-07)
The rapid digital transformations accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic has made it crucial to comprehend the impact of human factors on cyber vulnerabilities, particularly social engineering attacks. This research aims to bridge the gap between theoretical understanding and designing a practical cyber security awareness framework tailored to mitigate the human vulnerabilities in social engineering attacks, particularly in the post-COVID-19 landscape. The initial literature review identified a gap in addressing human psychological vulnerabilities in the current cybersecurity awareness programmes. An effective cyber security awareness framework was designed leveraging insights from international standards to understand popular social engineering attacks, analyse human psychological vulnerabilities to these threats, and map out comprehensive cybersecurity controls. Quantitatively measuring the framework's effectiveness by gathering primary data through a survey revealed the transformative potential of integrating the mitigation of psychological principles into cyber strategies. When qualitatively compared with existing frameworks by implementing the framework in two use cases, the proposed framework’s comprehensive focus on the human element while maintaining alignment with international standards distinguishes its potential to mitigate social engineering threats. Incorporating the human factor into cybersecurity strategies is crucial, which is imperative for protecting against the progressively increased reliance on digital communication.
Analysis of Barriers to Adoption of Sustainable Practices in Construction Industry in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(Saudi Digital Library, 2023-12-01)
The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the barriers to adoption of sustainable practices in construction in Saudi Arabia. The literature review employed diffusion of innovation (DOI) and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) frameworks, along with the findings of prior studies to uncover five relevant variables which can act as barriers: (1) awareness and knowledge, (2) financial resources, (3) qualified workers, (4) availability of relevant technologies and (5) regulatory support and government incentives. Survey questionnaire was conducted with the workers across construction firms in Saudi Arabia to which 96 responses were received. Quantitative data was analysed using regression, Pearson’s correlation and independent sample t-test. Regression confirmed that awareness and knowledge, availability of relevant technologies and regulatory support and government incentives have positive and significant effect on adoption of sustainable practices in construction industry in Saudi Arabia. Independent sample t-test revealed the effect of financial resources and qualified workers was more pronounced in encouraging adoption of sustainable practices in the construction industry among small and medium sized firms (i.e. those which employ less than 250 workers) whereas for larger firms, financial resources and qualified workers were not barriers to adoption of sustainable practices. Larger construction firms have considerable financial resources and are not resource constrained. Therefore, larger construction firms do not view financial resources as an important variable in influencing their adoption of sustainable construction practices.