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Cryogenic Carbon Capture (CCC) Innovations and Potential Applications
(2023-05-05) Alzahrani, Abdualhadi; Macko, Stephen A; Grise, Kevin; Alrehaili, Omar
Our constant drive for economic growth is responsible for the degradation of the environment, poor air quality, and accelerated climate change. To mitigate carbon dioxide emissions from industrial emitters, one potential method is to use carbon capture and storage (CCS). Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC), one of the most promising CO2 separation technologies, achieves high rates of CO2 recovery and purity. This thesis discusses the various CCC methods that are currently under development, their advantages, and the obstacles that prevent their commercialization. The research evaluates the current state of technology, proposes recommendations for CCC deployment, acknowledges rival technologies, and concludes by outlining potential future directions for the CCC system. A promising technology for lowering greenhouse gas emissions from industrial processes is cryogenic carbon capture. Using cryogenic temperatures, which are typically below -100°C, CO2 is captured from industrial gas streams using this process. The CO2 is then compressed and purified in preparation for use or storage. Compared to conventional solvent-based carbon capture, cryogenic carbon capture has several benefits, including greater efficiency and less energy usage. Additionally, cryogenic carbon capture has the potential to capture CO2 from flue gas streams that have high impurity concentrations and are challenging to capture with other technologies. Before it can be widely used, however, cryogenic carbon capture's high capital costs and technical difficulties must be overcome. Cryogenic carbon capture is a technology with a lot of potential for lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing the effects of climate change. Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC) is a potential method for removing CO2 after combustion. This approach is relatively new compared to established practices, but it has significant technological and economic advantages. Despite its benefits, CCC is not yet commercially available, so a model-based design approach can provide valuable insights. The paper will begin by explaining the CCC process, followed by an extensive literature review that emphasizes various techniques for component-level modeling. The most efficient modeling methods for each system component are thoroughly presented. The authors suggest using the least complex modeling methods that are still able to accurately model specific CCC process components after comparing their complexity and accuracy levels. Additionally, possible directions for CCC process modeling and simulation study are discussed. Depending on the specific application, the effectiveness of the technology, and the facility size, the precise removal rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) in gigatons of carbon (GtC) can change. Cryogenic carbon capture is thought to potentially remove CO2 from the atmosphere on a global scale of 1-2 GtC (0.5-1 ppm) annually. This estimate is based on the power plants' and industrial facilities' projected and actual global emissions, as well as the possibility that a significant portion of these emissions could be captured using cryogenic carbon capture.
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Enhancing Cloud Security and Privacy with Zero-Knowledge Encryption and Vulnerability Assessment in Kubernetes Deployments
(2023-04-28) Alqarni, Ali; Gu, Yi
Cloud computing has become increasingly significant in recent years, yet security concerns and the challenges of rapidly building, testing, and deploying systems in monolithic environments can hinder innovation. Kubernetes provides a practical approach for distributed systems. In this thesis, we investigate an integrated framework to enhance the security and privacy of a Django-based application deployed on an open-source Kubernetes cluster, adding hybrid encryption and zero-knowledge encryption, and identifying vulnerabilities. This work contributes to understanding how Django's built-in security features can be effectively combined with Kubernetes deployment to provide a potentially robust web application environment. The results demonstrate that Django and Kubernetes can be effectively combined to create an efficient application deployment platform showing minimal vulnerabilities using monitoring tools such as Kube-hunter, Datree, and Mozilla Observatory. Also, our results showcase a practical implementation of zero-knowledge encryption and how it can be applied in a real-world setting. Describe
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Higher Education Internationalization And Institutional Quality Of Saudi Colleges And Universities In Light Of The Saudi Vision 2030 Of Educational Improvement
(ProQuest, 2023-05) Alamri, Mona; Ben, Bogodzinski
This dissertation examined the higher education internationalization and institutional quality of Saudi colleges and universities in light of the Saudi Vision 2030 of educational improvement. The aim of the study is to investigate the extent to which Saudi colleges and universities implement higher education internationalization and institutional quality in light of the Saudi Vision 2030. Three tools were used in this dissertation. First, The American Council on Education index was used to measure higher education internationalization practices at Saudi colleges and universities. Second, the researcher developed a new tool to explore the faculty perception of internationalization practices in their universities. Finally, the third tool was to collect statistical information about Saudi colleges and universities' performance in the years 2015 and 2020. The instruments used in this study were validated using the face validity of the instruments and Cronbach's Alphas to assess the internal consistency of each questionnaire. The findings of the study showed that the overall result of higher education internationalization at Saudi colleges and universities in the year 2020 was at an average level. The American Council on Education index revealed that Saudi colleges and universities had a moderate level of internationalization implementation practices. The faculty perceptions tool indicated that faculty members see their universities applying higher education internationalization at an average level. The implementation of higher education internationalization is not affected by the university's location, university type, or Faculty-student ratio. For institutional quality: English Proficiency, faculty H-index, and university Ranking were not affected by the university's location, university type, or Faculty-student ratio. Academic offerings, external funding, international students and study programs, student engagement, and faculty engagement were all statistically significant in predicting English proficiency scores in 2020 across Saudi colleges and universities. External funding and organizational resources were statistically significant in predicting faculty H-index scores in 2020 across Saudi colleges and universities. Articulate commitment, academic offerings, organizational infrastructure, international students and study programs, student engagement, faculty engagement, and organizational resources were all statistically significant in predicting university Ranking scores in 2020 across Saudi colleges and universities. The overall results of Saudi colleges and universities' institutional performance showed a positive increase in students' English language proficiency, Faculty H- index, and colleges and universities ranking. Finally, Saudi colleges and universities demonstrated a notable response to the Saudi Vision 2030 endeavors. The study recommends allocating independent departments for internationalization practices in Saudi universities and developing clear plans, programs, and mechanisms in understanding the connection between internationalization and institutional quality of Saudi higher education in terms of the Saudi Vision 2030 Educational Improvement Program.
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Blended Learning Motivation Support At The Saudi Electronic University: Utilizing Self-Determination Theory
(2023-05-13) Alenezi, Mona; Tonks, Stephen
Blended learning has been implemented in different designs and significantly impacted the learning process. It has been reported that students learned more when online classes were added to traditional courses, and it improved student interaction and satisfaction. In Saudi Arabia, more research is needed to understand the challenges and implementation of blended learning, because it is becoming more popular. This study aimed to use self-determination theory to examine psychological needs satisfaction in blended-learning courses at Saudi Electronic University. The study used the attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (ARCS) instructional design approach to investigate the level of student motivation in blended learning, how blended learning motivation support (BLMS) can predict student engagement, and how the need satisfaction mediates the relationship between BLMS and student engagement. It also assessed whether demographic variables such as gender, age, and time in the program influence students’ self-reported psychological needs satisfaction, BLMS, and engagement. Quantitative survey data were used to answer the research questions. The result of this study indicts that the students have a high level of motivation for the ARCS approach, psychological needs satisfaction, and students’ engagement, and there was not a statistically significant difference between female and male. However, there were statistically significant differences in engagement and student’ motivation support in blended learning by age and time in the program (p=0.05) in psychological needs satisfaction, skills, and participation. The results indicate that psychological needs satisfaction has a mediating role in the indirect effect of motivation on the perceptions of engagement and blended learning motivation. Psychological needs satisfaction can predict student engagement in blended learning (F=189.67).
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The Genome, Genetic Genealogy Database (3G DATABASE)
(Salma Obaid Alotaibi, 2023-04-11) Alotaibi, Salma Obaid; Blevins, Kristie
This is a qualitative research paper that used the content analysis method. Thirtyonesources which include journal articles, credible websites, and books were used to discuss the importance of having national and global genetic databases. DNA phenotyping is the technology used in criminal justice to identify crime suspects through observable traits in their DNA. This can play a key role in convicting the right crime perpetrators and avoiding future court appeals. It also helps during disaster recovery, where the victims are identified based on their DNA samples. Law enforcement agencies frequently use DNA to identify victims and solve high-profile cases such as murder. However, despite its success and usefulness in criminal justice, it faces some challenges. For example, there are often legislation limitations concerning access to and use of DNA evidence. In some countries, it is limited and can only be used for specific crimes; in others, it is widely used, but its use is limited in other ways, such as restrictions as evidence in court. It also faces ethical issues such as intentionally planting DNA samples or leaking sensitive information. Also, the public needs to fully support its use, even for low-profile cases. Despite these limitations, a universal DNA database would help reduce investigation costs and improve their effectiveness, sometimes even for property crimes. DNA is extremely useful due to its ability to solve complicated identity problems. An exemplary DNA database should contain DNA profiles for all citizens. Increasing the capacity of current databases, and connecting them to share information with authorized officials will help to create a robust DNA database for future generations.