Investigation of Balance in Patients with Chronic Shoulder Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
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Saudi Digital Library
"Background: Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions that occurs to people during their lifetime. Body balance disorders can be a result of pain processing. Current evidence shows that patients with shoulder pain often suffer from proprioceptive deficits in the shoulder as well as coordination deficits in their trunk and lower extremities. Only standing balance has been investigated in those people. To our knowledge, studies on walking balance in patients with shoulder pain are lacking. Balance in walking is important in terms of maintaining independence and safety Objectives: 1) To investigate standing and walking balance in patients with chronic shoulder pain, and 2) to study the relationship between different variables and parameters of standing and walking balance. Study design: Case-control study. Methods: Patients (n = 15) with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) and healthy controls (n = 15), who were matched in age, gender and body mass index (BMI), were recruited. Walking balance was assessed using three clinical tests: timed up and go test (TUG), stance time and center of pressure deviation. Standing balance was tested using challenge disc, Romberg test and timed unipedal stance test (UPST). Statistical analysis: Independent t-tests were used to investigate the differences between the two groups in demographic data and all the outcome measurements. The effect size was calculated with Cohen’s d. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for correlation analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in between the two groups in any parameter of the standing balance (p ≥ 0.095) or walking balance (p ≥ 0.160). There were no correlations except a moderate correlation between BMI and challenge disc (p = 0.025) and between age and challenge disc (p = 0.012) in both groups. Conclusions: Patients with chronic shoulder pain had no deficiencies in standing and walking balance in comparison to healthy participants"