Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/BMMs via hydrothermal method and its potential application toward adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution

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Gul, Anadil
Ullah, Raza
Sun, Jihong
Munir, Tallat
Bai, Shiyang
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The novel mesoporous TiO2/BMMs nanocomposites using bimodal mesoporous silica (BMMs) as support and rutile-anatase mixed phase as active species were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal and subsequent calcination method. Their structural and physiochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, BET-isotherms, inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the photocatalytic degradation activity of the synthesized catalysts were extensively enhanced as compare to bare TiO2, due to the highly uniform dispersion of mixed phases (Anatase and Rutile) TiO2 on the bimodal mesoporous surfaces. Particularly, the catalytic efficiency became increased as increasing the calcination temperature, showing the highest (98%) overall removal of CV dye using TBH5d as catalyst calcinated at 800 °C. Its most interesting finding is that the % adsorption of TBH5d was 46 %, more than that (26%) of TBH5c calcinated at 600 ℃, however, its % degradation was 21 %, lower than that (39 %) of TBH5c for dye concentration of 20 ppm in 50 min. Meanwhile, the kinetic adsorption and degradation performances were followed the pseudo second and first order models, respectively, further proving the high degradation efficiency of TBH5c with high rate constant than that of TBH5d. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔGads, ΔHads, and ΔSads) were calculated, suggesting the spontaneous and exothermic procedure with high entropy, while the adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to Dubinin-Radushkevich model. Both TBH5c and TBH5d showed an excellent stability and reactivity 71.2 and 61 %, respectively, even after 5th cycles. Thus, these results suggested that that TBH5c may be one of the suitable candidates in wastewater treatments.