STATE OF THE ART IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF ENGINEERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA
Saudi Digital Library
Job satisfaction among engineers has been gaining recognition in recent years as an essential issue within the engineering labor market. Many studies have investigated the impact of engineers’ job satisfaction on an enterprise’s productivity and profitability. The present study aims to investigate the drivers of job satisfaction among engineers using a survey questionnaire. Data collected from 342 respondents in a 2012 study conducted in Saudi Arabia will be compared with the data to be collected as part of the present study. The findings of this comparison are expected to be reflective of recent changes in Saudi Arabia’s government during the period 2012–2022, as well as the recently established Vision 2030, which has brought changes to the regulatory framework that have had a significant effect on the Saudi community and the labor market. The proposed methodology encompasses three phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire is administered to engineers in Saudi Arabia to solicit input on their degree of job satisfaction. The questionnaire considers 11 categories with 26 questions and 71 sub-questions using the Likert scale. In the second phase, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to (a) examine the applicability of Herzberg's two-factor theory on the engineers’ job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2022. (b) examine the relationships between different factors of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene factors (i.e., the independent variables) and their impact on engineers in Saudi Arabia (i.e., the dependent variable); (c) consider whether demographic factors (sex, age, monthly income, sector, marital status, experience length), have a statistically significant influence on job satisfaction among engineers in 2012 and compare it with those in 2022; (d) to identify and study the factors influencing job satisfaction among engineers in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the findings of the study suggest that Herzberg's two-factor theory is applicable in the Saudi Arabian engineering labor market. Motivational factors alone are insufficient for job satisfaction, while hygiene factors play a significant role in increasing job satisfaction. Immediate supervisors act as a balancing element in the overall job satisfaction equation. The statistical analysis reveals that seven of the variables fall under motivational factors such as career development, communications, corporate culture, leadership and planning, recognition and rewards, role at the company, and teamwork and cooperation, which are essential in improving job satisfaction but are not sufficient to prevent job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, hygiene factors such as benefits, training programs, and working conditions are crucial for enhancing job satisfaction. Immediate supervisors act as a balancing factor as they prevent job dissatisfaction and enhance job satisfaction. Immediate supervisors also have relationships with hygiene factors and motivational factors that influence employees in the Saudi Arabian engineering labor market. Monthly income and age are the only two demographic factors that have a significant impact on engineers' job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. The research limitations include a relatively small sample, so future studies should consider larger samples and explore the application of Herzberg's theory in other regions of the Middle East or any country that has the same work conditions.
Satisfaction, Engineers Satisfaction, Engineers in Saudi Arabia Satisfaction