SUSTAINABILITY OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES: A CRITICAL ANALAYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS
Saudi Digital Library
Despite the growing adoption of Lithium-ion Battery (Li+Bs), there are few studies that have conducted an in-depth examination of the sustainability of batteries at each stage of its lifecycle whereby the key stages include production, material sourcing, use, and end-of-life management. This research examines the sustainability of Lithium-ion battery (Li+Bs) technology in electric vehicles (EVs). Analysis of the Lithium-ion battery value chain reveals that the production stage contributes the most to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, particularly during raw material extraction and processing. Aluminium and copper, used in battery components, are found to be significant pollutants due to their energy-intensive production processes. Furthermore, safety concerns arise at various stages, from production to recycling, with issues like thermal runaway and potential short-circuiting posing significant challenges. This research explored various pathways such as upscaling production, employing renewable energy in cell manufacturing, and enhancing battery energy density show promise in reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability. It is found that upscaling has the greatest impact in reducing GHG emissions across the Li+Bs value chain (56%), followed by adoption of renewable energy (45%), sustainable procurement and recycling (36%), greater density of battery energy (29%), increase in battery lifetime (29%), sustainable electrode materials (28%), substitute electrolytes (26%) and redesign of battery packs and cells (22%). The findings highlight the relevance of various pathways and options available to enhance the sustainability of Lithium-ion battery technology in EVs. This research provides recommendations stemming from the study and past practical experience in industries that advocate for a multidimensional approach towards a greener Lithium-ion battery value chain. Upscaling of production facilities and transitioning to renewable energy sources for battery manufacturing are essential first steps. In addition, sustainable procurement strategies, investments in comprehensive recycling systems, and focused research & development efforts targeting improvements in battery performance, efficiency, and safety are integral to achieving long-term sustainability in the use of Li+Bs in EVs.
EV, SUSTAINABILITY OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES A CRITICAL ANALAYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS, Sustainability, battery, Electrical vehicle, Reduce emissions, emissions