Evaluation of Histological Morphology After Whole Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation Following a Slow-Freezing Protocol

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Abstract Background Fertility preservation has been the focus of research and studies for many years, particularly in recent decades, as fertility procedures such as in vitro fertilisation have become commonplace in clinics. Cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy are likely to have difficulty reproducing because these treatments have a significant influence on male testicular tissues. For individuals who have had their testicular tissue cryopreserved prior to receiving gonadotoxic treatments, transplantation of testicular tissues and cells is advocated as a potential clinical alternative. Objective and rationale The current study attempts the slow-freezing protocol on whole testicular tissue to provide an overview of how cryopreservation affects the tissue and the histological morphology. Research method In this study, 6 whole testes were obtained from three dogs provided by a local veterinary clinic, divided into two groups: control and cryopreserved. Three of the testes were cryopreserved using the slow freezing protocol and then compared to control testes of the tissue damage and histological changes. The seminiferous tubules were counted and assessed under the microscope. Outcomes There were significant differences in terms of the size of the cryopreserved group because after being examined under the microscope, the seminiferous tubules and cells had shrunk. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and a significant increase was observed in the density of the seminiferous tubule which supports the findings of tissue shrinkage after cryopreservation. Limitations and further study The study was focused only on the histology examination due to the time limitation imposed. A further study should be undertaken to assess tissue function and viability.