COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOUR TIME SERIES METHODS TO FORECAST API LEVEL OF SIX REGIONS IN MALAYSIA

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Date
2023-11-06
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Saudi Digital Library
Abstract
Air pollution in Malaysia has become a growing concern in recent years due to its adverse impacts on human health, the environment, and the overall quality of life. The ongoing expansion of industries is a major source of concern for everyone. Malaysia, a nation that is fast developing, has seen increasing industrialization, urbanization, and increased motorization, all of which have led to a decline in air quality (Rani et al., 2018). Industrial emissions are one of the main causes of air pollution in Malaysia. The nation's industrial sector is broad, encompassing petrochemicals, manufacturing, and palm oil production. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM) are only a few of the pollutants that are released into the atmosphere by these businesses. Air pollution is also greatly influenced by the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and diesel (Zakaria et al., 2019). Nur et al., (2013) described other significant sources of air pollution such as vehicular emissions. Higher levels of pollutants have resulted from the rapid growth in the number of automobiles on Malaysian roadways, especially in urban areas. Cars, motorbikes, and trucks emit dangerous pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) through their exhaust emissions. These pollutants not only worsen the quality of the air but also seriously endanger the health of the populace, especially those who live close to busy roads and places with heavy traffic. Many sources, Quratul et al., (2021) and Nur et al., (2013) have also described other sources of pollution such as open burning. Open burning activities in Malaysia, notably for agricultural and land clearing purposes, considerably contribute to air pollution in addition to industrial and vehicle emissions. Large amounts of smoke, particulate matter, and dangerous substances are released into the atmosphere when forests, peatlands, and agricultural waste are burned. These haze events have negative effects on air quality, visibility, and public health, which can result in respiratory problems and other health concerns. They are frequently made worse by the El-Nino weather phenomena. The increasing number of plethora sources of pollution in Malaysia is of great concern for the population’s health.
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forcast, API
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