EMERGING INFECTIOUS RNA VIRUSES

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AHMEM YOUSEF GHANEM ALHEJAILI
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Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are diseases that appear in a defined population for the first time or re-appearance of known diseases. EIDs have been given priority from WHO in terms of research and development to find answers to where and why do these infectious diseases keep appearing over time? Numerous factors can contribute to (EIDs) such as microbe’s evolution and environmental changes. Most human EIDs are zoonotic, with a high percentage of these being RNA viruses. The success of these RNA viruses, especially coronaviruses, lies in the high mutation rate and the ability of proofreading. This dissertation aims to review the published literature in order to present an overview and compare, to address similarities and differences, between SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 of structure, genetics, origins, history, geographical distribution, transmission, clinical features, risk factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and prevention. Some differences between the three viruses appear in the spike (S) protein, origins, and geographical distribution, while some similarities appear in risk factors, some clinical features, and transmission by droplet. Although the geographical distribution of SARS-CoV-2 shows that the virus is more infectious than SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, MERS-CoV has a fatality rate more than SARS-CoV-2. Besides, there are some similarities structure and genetics of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, and both emerged from the wildlife market in China. It seems that the current solutions to fight these viruses are by developing diagnostics methods, treatment, and prevention methods applied by healthcare authorities because the vaccination still needs time to be developed. However, there is an urgent need for the One Health concept as a radical solution that can prevent these diseases from emerging from wildlife.
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