Explicitation as Manifested in English into Arabic Translations of Young Adult’s Literature
The current thesis studies the concept of explicitation within the context of translations of young adult literature. The study expands on Blum-Kulka’s (1986) hypothesis of explicitation. Nevertheless, the assumption that underpins this research is that explicitation is not simply an inherent aspect of translation but is rather caused by the search for relevance. Therefore, the study interprets the instances of explicitation from the perspective of Relevance Theory. This assumption was basically corroborated by the results of the study. Various examples of explicitation shifts were determined by analysing a body of classic literature belonging to the young adult genre that had been translated from English to Arabic. Identified shifts were categorised into groups based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Grammar criteria, namely the ideational and textual metafunctions. Via the process of qualitative analysis based on the Systemic Functional model of grammar, the research determines where and why explicitation took place in the translated versions of young adult novels. Therefore, two different approaches are utilised within the present study to analyse the occurrences of explicitation within the TT. The first approach focuses on linguistics and is predominantly utilised for the classification of explicitation manifestations based on their functions, while the second one is a communicative approach that forms the basis for comprehending the instances of explicitation that occur within the TT. The main sources of data are classic novels that have been translated into Arabic for readers from the younger generation, with a particular focus on the following works as a case study: The Secret Garden, written in 1911 by the English author Frances Hodgson Burnett, and Anne of Green Gables, written in 1908 by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery. The Textual Component of the body of literature utilised as data was analysed through a manual process in order to identify any possible explicitation shifts. Further investigation of the translated versions of the texts facilitated the identification of various different classes in terms of the occurrences of explicitation: functionally at the ideational level through elaboration, enhancement and extension, and textually through substituting and adding. The motivations underlying these manifestations were identified as being linked to the imaginations of younger readers, the avoidance of ambiguity, adherence to the conventions of the target language, the linguistic and cognitive capacities of younger readers, and lastly, the highlighting of pedagogical values. Additionally, the current study contends that explicitation should not be regarded as purely an inherent and disadvantageous aspect of translations, but should instead be considered as an approach adopted by the translator motivated by their aspiration to make the text relevant for the target readers. In other words, explicitation is caused by the continual desire to render translations relevant. As revealed by the analysis within this study, this can be accomplished by resorting to childhood memories and previous experiences of reading. It is this ongoing need to be relevant that impacts the decisions the translator makes regarding the most appropriate way of rendering the implied meaning for younger readers. The current study also contends that there are various other erroneous beliefs surrounding the concept of explicitation, including the negative nature of the phenomenon and the greater likelihood that less practiced translators will incorporate explicitation into their target texts. In reality, more proficient translators could explicitate the target texts to increase the relevance for the intended readers when doing translations aimed at younger readers and they could choose to adopt this strategy consciously.