The Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplements in Retarding the Progression of Renal Disease: A Systematic Review
Abstract Background: There is a remarkable increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) across the world. It influences between 8% and 16% of individuals annually. It has been noted that numerous CKD patients have vitamin D deficiency. As vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining the functioning of several body organs, it might be possible that vitamin D supplements could positively impact CKD. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplements for the reduction of proteinuria in adults with CKD. Methodology: A search of electronic databases—such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the Nottingham Libraries Database (NUSearch)—was utilized to identify articles that evaluate the efficiency of vitamin D supplements in reducing the progression of CKD. The inclusion criteria included articles in the English language after the year of 2000. The patients’ ages ranged from 18 to 85 years. The quality assessment of the studies was conducted by using the Jadad scale. Results: Six randomised control trials met the inclusion criteria. The findings demonstrated that using vitamin D supplements could retard the progress of CKD. All studies showed a significant decline in proteinuria or albuminuria in patients with CKD after obtaining vitamin D supplements for at least four months. However, no significant changes were observed in either the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or blood pressure (BP). Conclusion: Calcitriol or paricalcitol supplements were observed to be beneficial in retarding the progression of CKD by reducing proteinuria or albuminuria levels. However, there was no notable variance in eGFR and BP.