Feasibility and Acceptability of Tailored Health Coaching Intervention to Improve Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management in Saudi Arabia: A Mixed-Methods Randomised Controlled Trial

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Saudi Digital Library
Background: Around a third of Saudi Arabia's people have been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, a condition best managed through a healthy lifestyle. Personalised health coaching, a strategy known for assisting individuals in overcoming challenges to adopt healthy behaviours, has not yet been applied in the country. Aims: This research aims to explore the feasibility and acceptability of tailored health coaching in Saudi Arabia, which could aid those with Type 2 diabetes in more effectively managing their conditions. Methods: Using a mixed-methods approach, this research involved a randomised controlled trial with 30 adults who have Type 2 diabetes. They were randomly allocated into either the intervention or control arm for 12 weeks. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour framework was used to guide the intervention implementation along with the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy version 1. The primary goal was to assess the suitability and duration of the intervention, recruitment, retention, and completion rates. The secondary outcome focused on the preliminary efficacy of the health coaching measured by the glycaemic index, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, patient self-efficacy, and diabetes self-management. Results: The results showed high rates of eligibility, recruitment, and retention (a screening rate of 90%, a recruiting rate of 79%, and a retention rate of 97%). Notable improvements were observed in the health coaching group across five outcomes: HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, patient self-efficacy, and diabetes self-care. The participants were satisfied with the intervention and requested its expansion. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated positive outcomes, supporting the need for a larger randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of health coaching in improving diabetes self-management among individuals with Type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia.
health behaviour change, health coaching, self-management, behaviour change techniques, type 2 diabetes