The regenerative and hepatoprotective role of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in in vivo and in vitro induced liver injury models

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Liver disease (LD) is a group of diseases that target the liver and causes detrimental and life-threatening pathologies, the only available treatment for (LD) patients is liver transplantation, however, the severe shortage of donors, immunogenic reactions and the long-term side effects of immunosuppressant treatments prescribed post-surgery are major complications are major obstacles facing modern medicine. However, regenerative medicine strategies offer a promising treatment for LD, the use of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SC-EVs) have shown positive results in pre-clinical studies. In this literature review and meta-analysis, 13 articles were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed, the results of the meta-analysis of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) markers showed improved hepatic function upon treatment with EV in vivo. Qualitative analysis of other LD related markers showed reduced fibrosis, inflammation and increased regeneration in in vivo and in vitro models treated with SC-EVs, these findings support the role of SC-EVs in hepatoprotection and liver regeneration.