An investigation of the anticancer effect of piperine and vitamin C in HL-60 cell line.
Piperine (1-Piperoylpiperidine), a main extract of Piper longum (long pepper) and Piper nigrum (black pepper), has a long history of use as a pharmaceutical alkaloid. This compound's anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antibacterial effects are widely recognized. Piperine, a naturally occurring compound, suppressed leukaemia cell growth by causing autophagy, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. On the other hand, vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans since it functions as an antioxidant and an activator of a variety of enzyme reactions. Ascorbate degradation, in conjunction with Flt3 leukaemic mutations, enhanced leukaemogenesis. Additionally, cancer cells, such as pancreatic and breast cells, can absorb, metabolize, and compartmentalize vitamin C in the same way as normal human cells do, which is significant and has strong implications for the development of new vitamin C treatment approaches in human cancer. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that piperine and vitamin C exhibited anticancer effects in HL-60 cells in vitro. Piperine and vitamin C alone or in combination may exert their anticancer effects via induction of apoptosis and reduction of cell survival in a concentration-dependent manner. Piperine and vitamin C may be a useful candidate as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of HL-60 cells. This study has revealed that piperine and vitamin C could interfere and reduce the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, BCL-2 gene upregulated in piperine and vitamin C-treated HL-60 cells. The preclinical findings presented in this paper can be used to plan future studies, particularly clinical trials including piperine and vitamin C on leukaemia cells.